Can 2FA be Hacked?

Profile Headshot of Satyam Gupta
Satyam Gupta

mins read

February 22, 2024

Popular Types of MFA

Key Takeaways

  1. Two factor authentication adds an extra layer of security protecting businesses from any sort of cyber threats
  2. 2FA includes authenticating users using 2 channels like SMS, WhatsApp or any other channel
  3. Multi-factor authentication like authenticator apps, biometrics, hardware tokens etc. act as a defence against any attacks on two factor authentication
  4. Methods for hacking 2FA include social engineering, phishing, SIM jacking, credential stuffing etc.
  5. Educating users about security, using multiple authentication channels are some ways to increase effectiveness of 2FA


There are around 80,000 cyber-attacks each year which has made the need for robust security measures has become paramount. One such measure is two-factor authentication (2FA), a security mechanism that adds an extra layer of protection to user accounts. But how secure is 2FA, and can it be hacked?  

In this article, we will explore the strengths and vulnerabilities of 2FA, along with its vulnerability to be hacked.

What is Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)?

Two-factor authentication, also known as 2-step verification, is a security process that requires users to provide two distinct forms of identification to access their accounts. The first factor is typically a username and password combination, while the second factor adds an additional layer of security, such as a unique code or biometric data like an OTP SMS.  

The goal of 2FA is to prevent unauthorized access to user accounts, even if the username and password are compromised.  
By requiring a second form of authentication, 2FA adds an extra hurdle for hackers to overcome, significantly reducing the risk of account breaches.

Popular Types of Multi-Factor Authentication

Infographic showing Popular Types of Multi-Factor Authentication by Message Central.

1. One-Time Passwords or Codes

One of the most common forms of 2FA is the use of one-time passwords (OTPs) or codes. These passwords are typically sent to users via SMS or email and can only be used once. The user enters the OTP along with their username and password to complete the login process.

While OTPs are convenient and widely adopted, they are not without their vulnerabilities. Hackers can employ social engineering techniques, such as phishing, to trick users into revealing their OTPs. Additionally, SIM jacking attacks can intercept SMS verification messages containing OTPs, allowing hackers to gain unauthorized access to accounts.

2. Authenticator Apps

Authenticator apps provide a more secure alternative to OTP verification. These apps generate time-sensitive codes on the user's device, eliminating the risk of interception during transmission. Examples of popular authenticator apps include Google Authenticator, Microsoft Authenticator, and Authy.

Using an authenticator app involves linking the app to the user's accounts and generating unique codes that expire within a short period. While authenticator apps enhance security, they are not entirely foolproof. Hackers can exploit vulnerabilities in the user's device, such as malware, to steal authentication codes.

3. Biometrics

Biometric authentication methods, such as fingerprint recognition, facial recognition, and iris scanning, leverage unique physical attributes to verify a user's identity. Biometrics provide a high level of security since these attributes are difficult to replicate.
However, biometric authentication is not without its limitations. False negatives and false positives can occur, leading to denial of access or unauthorized access, respectively. Additionally, the storage and processing of biometric data introduce additional privacy concerns.

4. Hardware Tokens

Hardware tokens are physical devices that users carry with them to authenticate their identities. These tokens generate one-time passwords or codes that users enter during the login process. Hardware tokens are often used in high-security environments, such as online banking.

While hardware tokens provide an extra layer of security, they can be lost or stolen, compromising the authentication process. Additionally, the cost and inconvenience of distributing hardware tokens to a large user base can be a challenge for organizations.

5. Push Notifications

Push notifications offer an alternative to SMS-based OTPs by delivering authentication requests directly to the user's mobile device. The user can approve or reject the request through the notification. This method is often used in mobile applications.

Push notifications provide a seamless user experience, but they are not immune to security risks. Hackers can exploit vulnerabilities in the mobile device's operating system to intercept or manipulate push notifications.

6. Certificate-Based Authentication

Certificate-based authentication uses digital certificates to verify a user or device's identity. These certificates are issued by trusted authorities and are stored on the user's device. Certificate-based authentication is commonly used in enterprise environments.

While certificate-based authentication offers a high level of security, the management and distribution of digital certificates can be complex and time-consuming. Additionally, compromised certificates can lead to unauthorized access. MFA is also used as an alternative to these vulnerabilities.  

Can Two-Factor Authentication Be Hacked?

Two-factor authentication is a powerful security measure, but it is not impervious to hacking attempts. Hackers have devised various techniques to bypass 2FA and gain unauthorized access to user accounts. Let's explore some of the common methods used by hackers and the measures you can take to mitigate these risks.

1. Social Engineering

Social engineering is a technique used by hackers to manipulate individuals into revealing sensitive information, such as authentication credentials. Phishing is one common form of social engineering, where hackers create fake websites or emails that appear legitimate to trick users into providing their login credentials.

To protect yourself from social engineering attacks, it is essential to educate yourself and your team about common tactics used by hackers. Be wary of any requests for sensitive information and always verify the authenticity of such requests through a separate communication channel.

2. Phishing

Phishing attacks involve tricking users into divulging their authentication credentials by posing as a legitimate entity. Attackers may create fake login pages or send deceptive emails to convince users to enter their credentials.

To prevent falling victim to phishing attacks, practice good online hygiene. Be cautious when clicking on links, especially in unsolicited emails. Verify the legitimacy of websites and email senders before entering any sensitive information.

3. SIM Jacking

SIM jacking, also known as SIM swapping, involves hackers convincing mobile phone carriers to transfer a victim's phone number to their device. Once they have control of the victim's phone number, they can intercept SMS-based OTPs and gain unauthorized access to accounts.

To protect against SIM jacking, use a different phone number for 2FA than the one used for general communications. Additionally, enable additional security measures with your mobile carrier, such as requiring in-person verification before making any changes to your account.

4. Credential Stuffing

Credential stuffing is a method where hackers use lists of compromised usernames and passwords to gain unauthorized access to user accounts. They automate the process by using bots to try multiple combinations until they find a successful login. AIT is also an example of automated attacks.  

To prevent credential stuffing attacks, use strong, unique passwords for each online service. Avoid reusing passwords and consider using a password manager to securely store and generate complex passwords. Enable multi-factor authentication whenever possible.

5. Malware

Malware refers to malicious software designed to harm or exploit a device, system, or network. Hackers can use malware to steal authentication credentials, including OTP verify, from both SMS-based and authenticator app-based 2FA systems.

Protect yourself from malware attacks by practicing safe browsing habits. Avoid downloading files from untrusted sources and keep your devices and antivirus software up to date. Regularly scan your devices for malware and be cautious when granting permissions to apps.

6. Man-in-the-Middle Attacks

Man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks involve intercepting communications between users and the authentication method or online service being used. Hackers can capture authentication codes or session cookies, allowing them to impersonate the user and gain unauthorized access. You should always refer to an OTP SMS fraud prevention guide even while implementing SMS based verification.  

To protect against MITM attacks, use secure and encrypted communication channels, such as HTTPS, whenever possible. Be cautious when accessing online services over public Wi-Fi networks, as they can be vulnerable to MITM attacks. Keep your devices and software updated with the latest security patches.

7. Physical Theft

Physical theft of devices or hardware tokens can compromise the security of 2FA. If a hacker gains physical access to your device or token, they may be able to bypass the authentication process and gain unauthorized access to your accounts.

To mitigate the risk of physical theft, implement device-level security measures, such as passcodes or biometric authentication. Keep your devices secure and be mindful of where you leave them. If your hardware token is lost or stolen, report it immediately to the appropriate authorities and request a replacement.

Enhancing the Effectiveness of Two-Factor Authentication

While two-factor authentication is not 100% foolproof, it remains a robust security measure that significantly reduces the risk of account breaches. To maximize the effectiveness of 2FA, consider implementing the following best practices:

1. Use Multiple Authentication Factors:

Instead of relying solely on one form of authentication, consider using multiple factors for enhanced security. For example, combine a password with a biometric authentication method or an authenticator app. The more layers of security you add, the more challenging it becomes for hackers to bypass them.

2. Stay Informed About Security Risks:

Keep yourself updated on the latest security risks and vulnerabilities associated with 2FA. Follow reputable sources, such as cybersecurity blogs and news websites, to stay informed about emerging threats and best practices for mitigating them.

3. Enable Account Recovery Options:

In case you lose access to your primary authentication method, such as a lost or broken device, ensure you have alternative account recovery options in place. This could include backup codes, secondary email addresses, or phone numbers for account verification.

4. Regularly Review Account Activity:

Regularly monitor your account activity for any suspicious or unauthorized access attempts. Most online services provide activity logs or notifications that alert you to unrecognized login attempts. If you notice any suspicious activity, take immediate action, such as changing your password and reporting the incident to the service provider.

5. Educate Users About Security Best Practices:

If you are responsible for managing a system or network that utilizes 2FA, educate your users about security best practices. Provide clear instructions on how to enable and use 2FA effectively. Emphasize the importance of strong and unique passwords, avoiding suspicious links, and reporting any security concerns promptly. For example: Always refer to the best practices for implementing OTP verification.  


There are a no. of options for promotional messaging like SMS, RCS (for which you sometimes receive sent as SMS via server), for use cases like user authentication, there are limited trustworthy options.  
Two-factor authentication is a powerful security measure that adds an extra layer of protection to user accounts.  
While it is not immune to hacking attempts, implementing 2FA significantly reduces the risk of account breaches. By using multiple authentication factors, staying informed about security risks, enabling account recovery options, reviewing account activity regularly, and educating users about security best practices, you can enhance the effectiveness of 2FA and protect your valuable digital assets. Remember, cybersecurity is an ongoing battle, and it requires constant vigilance and adaptation to stay one step ahead of hackers. By combining robust security measures with user education and awareness, you can create a safer digital environment for yourself and your organization.

Implement 2FA with Message Central

Message Central is a CPaaS solution offering multiple channels including SMS and WhatsApp.  

Both these are one of the best combination channels which can be used for user authentication. You can either get started for free or get in touch with the team for any custom needs.  

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